Coping with Seasonal Migraine Episodes

Coping with Seasonal Migraine Episodes

Understanding Seasonal Migraine Triggers and How to Manage Them

Migraine is a neurological condition that affects many individuals, and it can be triggered by a variety of factors. One common trigger for migraine headaches is the change of seasons and weather. As the seasons transition, weather conditions and temperature changes can potentially provoke migraine attacks. Understanding and identifying these seasonal triggers can be immensely helpful in managing and avoiding the frequency of these painful and debilitating episodes. In this article, we will delve into the most common seasonal migraine triggers and explore the diagnosis and treatment options for this condition.

Seasonal Migraine Triggers

According to Dr. Medhat Mikhael, a pain management specialist and medical director of MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Center’s Spine Health Center in Fountain Valley, California, there are three primary seasonal triggers for migraines: changing barometric pressure, pollen and allergies, and stress during extreme weather conditions.

1. Changing Barometric Pressure

Barometric pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is a significant trigger for migraines. This pressure fluctuates as the seasons change, potentially provoking migraine attacks. Individuals with migraines often have sensitive brains that react to changes, so tracking weather patterns can be useful in predicting and treating migraines.

2. Pollen and Allergies

During the spring season, allergies reach their peak, leading to sinusitis. Sinusitis can trigger migraine episodes in susceptible individuals. Allergens, such as pollen, can exacerbate the symptoms of migraines and increase the intensity of the attacks.

3. Stress during Very Hot or Cold Weather

Extreme weather conditions, such as excessive heat or cold, can be triggers for migraines. Factors like dehydration, stress, and lack of sleep during extreme temperatures can contribute to the development of migraines. Furthermore, bright light, including sunlight, can increase sensitivity in individuals with migraines, making summer a potential trigger.

Other potential triggers include sun glare, high humidity, dry air, and windy or stormy weather. Some people experience imbalances in brain chemicals, such as serotonin, in response to weather changes, which can prompt migraine attacks. Weather-related triggers can also worsen headaches caused by other triggers.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Seasonal Migraine

The treatment for seasonal migraines is similar to the treatment for chronic migraines. The key to preventing migraines is avoiding triggers. When diagnosing migraines, doctors aim to link the triggers with the migraines experienced by the patient. Understanding the seasonal triggers and patterns observed by the patient is essential in developing preventive and abortive measures to manage migraines effectively.

To receive an accurate diagnosis, healthcare professionals may conduct brain or neck imaging and perform a physical examination to identify possible signs of sinus pressure or pain. However, the majority of the diagnosis will depend on the patient’s history of triggers and patterns observed. Each individual may have different triggers, and it may not always be possible to avoid all triggers, including weather-specific ones. However, being aware of impending weather changes can help individuals prepare and reduce exposure to known triggers under their control.

Sinus Pain and Migraine

Sometimes, people can mistakenly self-diagnose sinus headaches when they are actually experiencing chronic migraines. A study conducted in 2019 revealed that individuals who believed they had sinus headaches often turned out to have sinus-related migraines. A 2004 study involving 2,991 people found that 88% of those who self-diagnosed or were diagnosed by a doctor with sinus headaches actually met the criteria for migraines. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to receive an accurate diagnosis.

Home Remedies to Manage Seasonal Migraine

Alongside professional treatment, individuals can try various methods at home to manage seasonal migraines. Dr. Medhat Mikhael suggests the following tips to prevent barometric pressure headaches:

  • Get 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night.
  • Drink a minimum of eight glasses of water per day.
  • Exercise most days of the week.
  • Eat a balanced diet and avoid skipping meals.
  • Practice relaxation techniques if experiencing stress.

Additionally, Dr. Shae Datta, a neurology specialist at NYU Langone Hospital-Long Island, recommends taking abortive migraine medication at the first sign of a migraine headache. While it may not always be easy to avoid triggers or follow all these tips, incorporating healthy lifestyle choices and taking medication at the onset of migraines can help reduce the number and severity of migraine episodes.

Monitoring the weather and keeping a headache diary can also be beneficial. Being aware of impending storms or weather changes can prompt individuals to avoid known food triggers, get adequate rest, practice stress reduction, and take prescribed medications preemptively. Several apps are available to help individuals track their headaches and identify patterns and triggers.


Living with migraines does not mean enduring the pain silently. Although migraines have no cure, preventive and abortive medications are available to manage seasonal episodes. Seeking help from a migraine specialist to identify triggers and develop a personalized treatment plan can significantly improve one’s quality of life. By understanding and managing seasonal migraine triggers, individuals can proactively reduce the impact of migraines and increase pain-free days. Remember, everyone’s migraines are unique, and what works for one person may not work for another.